SinoBiological社 IL-2: A Cytokine with Immunostimulatory and Immunoregulatory Functions
Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a pleiotropic cytokine central to the regulation of T-cell responses. In addition, IL-2 plays critical roles in a wide range of other immune modulatory actions.
IL-2 mediates its function by binding to IL-2 receptors (IL-2R). There are three subunits of IL-2 receptor, α chain (CD25), β chain (CD122), and γ chain (CD132). The β and γ chains are shared between IL-2 and IL-15 receptor complexes, while the γ chain is also used by IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, and IL-21. IL-2 binds to IL-2Rα alone with low affinity, to IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ heterodimer with intermediate affinity, and to IL-2α/β/γ heterotrimer with high affinity. Expression of IL-2R by different immune cell subsets determines the cellular sensitivity to IL-2. IL-2 signaling is then transduced via three different pathways: JAK-STAT, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and MAPK/ERK.
Recent studies have recognized IL-2/IL-2R signaling pathway as an important target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. New strategies are now being developed to improve the efficacy and lower toxic effects of IL-2 therapy. Sino Biological has developed a panel of recombinant IL-2 and IL-2R protein reagents to facilitate the study of the biology of IL-2.
Recombinant IL-2 Proteins
In addition to therapeutic usage, recombinant IL-2 protein also allows the culture of IL-2 dependent T-cell lines and NK cell lines, the proliferation of mitogen-activated T cells and NK cells, the establishment of thymocyte, splenocyte or peripheral blood lymphocyte derived T-cell lines, and the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells.
Sino Biological has developed high activity IL-2 proteins from various species. The activities of these proteins have been validated by cell proliferation assays using CTLL2 cells.
Recombinant IL-2 Receptor Proteins
IL-2 receptors with different subunits have been developed to accelerate the research of IL-2/IL-2R signaling.
Cytokines Share the IL-2R γ Chain
The cytokines that share the common gamma-chain (γc) among their receptor subunits including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21, play dominant roles in the regulation of immune responses.
Among members of γc family, IL-15 shares many biological activities to IL-2 as they bind common hematopoietic receptor (IL-2/15Rβ & γc) subunits and may compete for the same receptor. IL-15 induces the activation of JAK kinases, as well as the phosphorylation and activation of transcription activators, STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6.
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