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Cytoskeleton社 Analyze Your Active Small G-Proteins With The Most Cited Tools Available



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Scientists Trust Cytoskeleton's Activation Assays

  • Cytoskeleton activation assays have over 500 citations in the last five years
  • Since 2016, 71% of publications investigating active small G-proteins cite Cytoskeleton's activation assays


Cytoskeleton Activation Assays are Powerful Tools

  • Measure Cdc42, Rac, Ral, Ras, and Rho
  • Accurate, sensitive, and user-friendly formats
  • G-LISAs are ideal for precious samples
  • G-LISAs are low input compatible. 5-50 ug per assay
  • G-LISAs have a flexible format. 8X12 strip plates

Applications for pull-downs


Measure K-Ras, N-Ras, H-Ras, RhoC, Rac3 isoforms 

  • Active levels of multiple Ras- and Rho-subfamily GTPase isoforms can be detected.


Complement G-LISA findings 

  • Use two different, validated techniques to quantitate active GTPase level.
GProteins_3.jpgSwiss 3T3 fibroblasts were serum starved for 24h, then either treated with 10 ng/ml of EGF for 2 min (Lanes 4 & 5) or left untreated (Lanes 2 & 3).Rac1 activation was measured using the Rac1 Activation pull-down assay (Cat. # BK035) (Lanes 2-5). Lane 1 is 20 ng of recombinant Rac1-His protein. 

Applications for G-LISAs


Measure active GTPases in 3-D cell cultures


Measure active GTPases in primary cell lysates

  • Measure active GTPases in as little as 5 µg of total cell extract.


Increase accuracy of active GTPase quantitations

  • Quantitative numerical output in OD490nm units.


Measure active GTPases in tissue lysates

  • Use as little as 1 mm3 of tissue for extraction.


Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were treated with 1 μg/ml CN04 for the indicated times and cell lysates were subjected to G-LISA activation assays for RhoA (Cat.# BK124), Rac1 (Cat.# BK128), and Cdc42 (Cat.# BK127).

Cited in hundreds of peer-reviewed articles


Selected Citations


3-D cell culture and G-LISAs:


Lui H. et al. CREPT Promotes Melanoma Progression Through Accelerated Proliferation and Enhanced Migration by RhoA-Mediated Actin Filaments and Focal Adhesion Formation. Cancers 2020, 12(1), 33.


Lui S. et al. S1PR1 regulates the switch of two angiogenic modes by VE-cadherin phosphorylation in breast cancer. Cell Death & Disease volume 10, Article number: 200 (2019).


Louca M. et al. Coordinated Expression of Ras Suppressor 1 (RSU-1) and Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) Affects Glioma Cell Invasion. Cancers 2019, 11(8), 1159.


Primary cells and G-LISAs:


Xie S. et al. Astragaloside IV attenuates sepsis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction via suppressing RhoA/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Jan;78:106066.


Gokoffski KK. et al. Physiologic Electrical Fields Direct Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Growth In Vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 Aug 1;60(10):3659-3668.


Louzao-Martinez. L. et al. A proteome comparison between human fetal and mature renal extracellular matrix identifies EMILIN1 as a regulator of renal epithelial cell adhesion. Matrix Biology Plus Volume 4, November 2019, 100011.


Nagaraja S. et al. Histone Variant and Cell Context Determine H3K27M Reprogramming of the Enhancer Landscape and Oncogenic State. Mol Cell. 2019 Dec 19;76(6):965-980.e12.


Human IPS cells and G-LISAs:


Bogetofte H. et al. Perturbations in RhoA signalling cause altered migration and impaired neuritogenesis in human iPSC-derived neural cells with PARK2 mutation. Neurobiol Dis. 2019 Dec;132:104581.


Nichol RH 4th. et al. Environmental Elasticity Regulates Cell-type Specific RHOA Signaling and Neuritogenesis of Human Neurons. Stem Cell Reports. 2019 Dec 10;13(6):1006-1021.


Kizner V. et al. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Knockout of the Neuropsychiatric Risk Gene KCTD13 Causes Developmental Deficits in Human Cortical Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Aug 11.


Clinical samples and G-LISAs:


González-Montelongo MDC. et al. Relation of RhoA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells With Severity of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Vasospasm. Stroke. 2018 Jun;49(6):1507-1510.


Chen W. et al. High RhoA expression at the tumor front in clinically localized prostate cancer and association with poor tumor differentiation. Oncol Lett. 2016 Feb;11(2):1375-1381.


Guo Y. et al. A Novel Pharmacologic Activity of Ketorolac for Therapeutic Benefit in Ovarian Cancer Patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Nov 15;21(22):5064-72.


G-LISAs complimenting pull-downs:


Campion CG. et al. COMMD5/HCaRG Hooks Endosomes on Cytoskeleton and Coordinates EGFR Trafficking. Cell Rep. 2018 Jul 17;24(3):670-684.e7.


Vodicska B. et al. MISP regulates the IQGAP1/Cdc42 complex to collectively orchestrate spindle orientation and mitotic progression. Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 6330 (2018).


Zamboni V. et al. Hyperactivity of Rac1-GTPase pathway impairs neuritogenesis of cortical neurons by altering actin dynamics. Scientific Reports volume 8, Article number: 7254 (2018).


Sheshachalam A. et al. The effect of Rho drugs on mast cell activation and degranulation. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Jul;102(1):71-81.


GTPase pull-downs:


Chen Y. et al. Catalpol Ameliorates Podocyte Injury by Stabilizing Cytoskeleton and Enhancing Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1477.


Wu Y. et al. Mycobacterial Infection is Promoted by Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 Regulating a Signaling Cascade Leading to Activation of β1-Integrin. Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;51:1815–1829.


Islam SU. et al. PRPF overexpression induces drug resistance through actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Oncotarget. 2017;8(34):56659–56671.



Click here for more examples (see Citation tab). 


For more information and questions contact

G-LISA Activation Assays Cat. # Amount (assays)
BUNDLE RhoA / Rac1 / Cdc42 Activation Assay G-LISA Kits BK135 24 each
Cdc42 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK127 96
Cdc42 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK127-S 24
Rac1,2,3 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK125 96
Rac1 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK128 96
Rac1 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK128-S 24
Rac1 Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Luminescence BK126 96
RalA Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK129 96
Ras Activation Assay G-LISA Kit, Colorimetric BK131 96
RhoA Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK124 96
RhoA Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Colorimetric BK124-S 24
RhoA Activation Assay G-LISA Kit; Luminescence BK121 96


Pull-down Activation Assays Cat. # Amount (assays)
COMBO RhoA/Rac1/Cdc42 Pull-down Activation Assay BK030 10 each
Arf1 Pull-down Activation Assay BK032-S 20
Arf6 Pull-down Activation Assay BK033-S 20
Cdc42 Pull-down Activation Assay BK034 50
Cdc42 Pull-down Activation Assay BK034-S 20
Rac1 Pull-down Activation Assay BK035 50
Rac1 Pull-down Activation Assay BK035-S 20
RalA Pull-down Activation Assay BK040 50
Ras Pull-down Activation Assay BK008 50
Ras Pull-down Activation Assay BK008-S 20
RhoA Pull-down Activation Assay BK036 80
RhoA Pull-down Activation Assay BK036-S 20


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